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芳静:北方年俗中“花馍”的文化意蕴(上)

2020-08-10 09:06:36 | 来源: 中廉在线

大年初一过后,到亲戚家走动,在北方一些地方叫“出门”。“出门”走亲戚,带什么“礼”呢?现在年轻一点的人可能想象不到,上世纪六七十年代,很多人在“出门”时带馍(馒头)。或许有人会惊讶:这还能算“礼”?不是每天都在吃嘛!

Cultural After the first day of the lunarnewyear, people begin visiting theirrelatives one by one, a custom familiar innorthernChina. Then what kind of gifts do peopletakeduing their visits? Itmay be hard for young people to imagine that, in the 1960s and 1970s, people take with them steamed buns during their visits to relatives. You may wonder:“Steamed buns, the ones we are eating everyday? How could it be?”

在农耕社会中,尽管北方多地种植小麦,但由于技术落后,产量低,白面馒头仍是奢侈品。能顿顿吃上大白馒头,成了很多人的梦想。普通人家只有到了年底特别是进入正月后才能吃半个月左右(初一到正月十五不做馍)。吃白面馍馍,走亲戚送“花馍”,既是享受一年劳动的最好收获,也是馈赠亲人的最佳之礼。于是,正月里,人们胳臂上擓着用竹子或芦苇编织的细篾红篮子,放进一定数量的馍馍,馍上覆着一块印花包袱,携家带口,互相走动“出门”。

In traditional Chinese farming society, wheat is widely planted in northern China, but due to backward technology and poor yield, steamed bun is still a luxury. Ordinary families can only have opportunity to have steamed buns for the first half month of the lunar new year.( It is a custom to make steamed buns well in advance and enough for the whole family in the first half month of the Spring Festival.) Eating steamed buns is not only a way for people to enjoy the good harvest of the year but becomes the best gift for relatives.Therefore, during the Spring Festival, people put a certain number of steamed buns in bamboo baskets covered with printed cloth, take it along with the whole family to visit eath other.

做花馍是一项费力费时的“工程”,春节前半个月左右往往就动手。在幼时的记忆中,每当哪家要做馍馍时,村乡邻里总是聚在一起:小麦面粉加水后的揉、搓、团等“和面”体力活由体力好的青壮男人承担,而擀、剪、切、扎、按、捏、卷等轻活由女性承担,老人、小孩们加水添柴烧柴,满屋子的欢声笑语弥漫在轻松的氛围中。伴随着油香味、麦芽香味的花馒头一锅一锅出笼,一箅子一箅子掀起来,白花花的热气在冬日的寒峭中陡然腾起几米高,把眼睛都眯得睁不开。令人惊奇的是,平时村里邻间劳作产生的小矛盾、小纠纷,都在这腊月的笑声中散去,在热气腾腾中融解。“远亲不如近邻”,一个小小的花馍馍制作工序,亦能把各家“簇合”在一起,你帮我,我帮你,流动着乡间了无痕迹的岁月时光。

Makingsteamed buns is a laborious and time-consuming "project", which is often started half a month before the Spring Festival. In my childhood memory, whenever a family planned to make steamed buns, villagers and neighbors always gathered together to help each other: the kneading of the dough were performed by men, while the light tasks such as rolling, cutting, molding were undertaken by women. Old people and children added firewood to stove, and the whole house was full of laughter. There was a festive atmosphere in the air. With very sweet smell, the steamed buns are coming out one steamer after another, and the hot white steam suddenly soars several meters above in the cold air. What is amazing is that all the quarrels and disagreements between neighbors in the village usually become reconciled among the laughters. In a sense, the process of making steamed buns also serves as a way for families to communicate with each other and create a harmonious relationship with each other. Just as the saying goes:“A far-off relative is not as helpful as a near neighbor”.

责任编辑:姚琼芳
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